Communicable Diseases Tuberculosis (TB) Causes, Effects, Symptoms, Types, Risk Factors & More

Communicable Diseases Tuberculosis (TB) Causes, Effects, Symptoms, Types, Risk Factors & More It is a contagious, disease caused by any of several mycobacteria. The most common form of the disease is tuberculosis of the lungs (pulmonary, consumption, or phthisis).

Communicable Diseases Tuberculosis (TB) Causes, Effects, Symptoms, Types, Risk Factors & More

Communicable Diseases Tuberculosis (TB) Causes, Effects, Symptoms, Types, Risk Factors & More It is a contagious, disease caused by any of several mycobacteria. The most common form of the disease is tuberculosis of the lungs (pulmonary, consumption, or phthisis).

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But the intestines, bones, and joints, the skin, and the genitourinary, lymphatic, and nervous systems may also be affect.

There are three major types of tubercle bacilli that affect humans.

The human type (Mycobacterium tuberculosis), first identify in 1882 by Robert Koch, is spread by people themselves. It is the most common one.

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The bovine type (M. bovis) is spread by infects cattle but is no longer a threat in areas where pasteurization of milk and the health of cattle are strictly supervise.

The avian type (M. avis) is carries by infects birds but can occur in humans. The tubercle bacillus can live for a considerable period of time in air or dust.

The most common means of acquiring the disease is by inhalation of respiratory droplets.

Tuberculosis of the lungs usually results in no or minimal symptoms in its early stages.

In most persons the primary infection is contain by the body’s immune systems, and the lesion, called a tubercle, becomes calcified. In many the infection is permanently arrest.

But in others the disease may break out again and become active years later, usually when the body’s immune defenses are low.

Untreated, the infection can progress until larges areas of the lung and other organs are destroy.

Symptoms of the disease include cough, loss of weight, and weakness.

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Worldwide the outlook has been far less encouraging. In 1993 the World Health Organisation declared TB a global health emergency; approximate one third of the world’s population was infects, and an estimated three million die each year.

Spread of TB is especially rapid in areas with poor public health services and prisons, crowded conditions and in adequate treatment often go together.

Areas where living conditions are disrupte by wars, famine, and natural disasters are also heavily affects.

Especially alarming has been the spread of drug-resistant strains of TB.

By the late 1990s scientific experts and international health officials warned that drug-resistant strains were spreading faster than had been anticipate.

Bacteria can survive and become drug resistant in patients whose treatment is not properly monitore.

Some believe that unless major new treatment strategies are initiate in source countries, drug-resistant TB will eventually become epidermic even in areas with good control programs, such as Europe and America.

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