Communicable Disease Pneumonia Causes, Effects, Vaccine, Prevention, Types & more
Communicable disease Pneumonia| causes, effects, vaccine, prevention, types & more
It is an acute infection of one or both lungs that can be cause by a bacterium, usually Streptococcus pneumonia or by a virus, fungus, or other organism. The causal organisms reach the lungs through the respiratory passages.
Usually an upper respiratory infection precedes the disease. Alcoholism, extreme youth or age, debility, immunosuppressive disorders and therapy, and compromised consciousness are predisposing factors. When one or more entire lobes of the lung are involve, the infection is consider as lobar pneumonia.
When the disease is confine to the air spaces adjacent to the bronchi, it is known as bronchopneumonia.
Aspiration pneumonia is the pathological consequence of the abnormal entry of fluids, particulate matter, or secretions in the lower airways.
The symptoms of pneumonia are high fever, chills, pain in the chest, difficulty in breathing, cough, and sputum that is pinkish at first and become rust-colored as the infection progresses.
The skin may turn bluish because the lungs do not sufficiently oxygenate the blood. Complete bed rest and good supportive care are important. Oxygen helps to relieve severe respiratory difficulty.
Immunization for pneumococcal pneumonia is recommended for children under two years old, adults 65 or older, and others at risk.
Penicillin is most commonly used to treat pneumococcal pneumonia and other pneumonias cause by bacteria and with the other antibiotic and sulfa drugs, it is responsible for the mark decline in mortality figures since the mid-twentieth century.
Nevertheless, pneumonia is still a serious disease, especially in the elderly and debilitated persons ( who usually acquire bronchopneumonia ).
When complicated by bacterial invasion of bloodstream, membranes of the heart, or the central nervous system.
The first symptoms of pneumonia usually resemble those of a cold or flu. The person then develops a high fever, chills, and cough with sputum.
Common symptoms include:
- rusty or green phlegm, or sputum, coughed up from lungs
- fast breathing and shortness of breath
- shaking chills
- fast heartbeat
- fatigue and weakness
- nausea and vomiting
- muscle pain
- dusky or purplish skin color, or cyanosis, from poorly oxygenated blood
Symptoms can vary depending on other underlying conditions and the type of pneumonia.